Forgot your password?
Please enter your email & we will send your password to you:
International Standby Practices that govern the operation of standby letters of credit
a. These Rules are intended to be applied to standby letters of credit (including performance, financial, and direct pay standby letters of credit).
b. A standby letter of credit or other similar undertaking, however named or described, whether for domestic or international use, may be made subject to these Rules by express reference to them.
c. An undertaking subject to these Rules may expressly modify or exclude their application.
d. An undertaking subject to these Rules is here-inafter referred to as a "standby".
a. These Rules supplement the applicable law to the extent not prohibited by that law.
b. These Rules supersede conflicting provisions in any other rules of practice to which a standby letter of credit is also made subject.
These Rules shall be interpreted as mercantile usage with regard for:
a. integrity of standbys as reliable and efficient undertakings to pay;
b. practice and terminology of banks and businesses in day-to-day transactions;
c. consistency within the worldwide system of banking operations and commerce; and
d. worldwide uniformity in their interpretation and application.
Unless the context otherwise requires, or unless expressly modified or excluded, these Rules apply as terms and conditions incorporated into
i. the issuer;
ii. the beneficiary to the extent it uses the standby;
iii. any advisor;
iv. any confirmer;
v. any person nominated in the standby who acts or agrees to act; and
vi. the applicant who authorises issuance of the standby or otherwise agrees to the application of these Rules.
These Rules do not define or otherwise provide for:
a. power or authority to issue a standby;
b. formal requirements for execution of a standby (e.g. a signed writing); or
c. defenses to honour based on fraud, abuse, or similar matters.
These matters are left to applicable law.
a. A standby is an irrevocable, independent, documentary, and binding undertaking when issued and need not so state.
b. Because a standby is irrevocable, an issuer's obligations under a standby cannot be amended or cancelled by the issuer except as provided in the standby or as consented to by the person against whom the amendment or cancellation is asserted.
c. Because a standby is independent, the enforce-ability of an issuer's obligations under a standby does not depend on:
i. the issuer's right or ability to obtain reimbursement from the applicant;
ii. the beneficiary's right to obtain payment from the applicant;
iii. a reference in the standby to any reimbursement agreement or underlying transaction; or
iv. the issuer's knowledge of performance or breach of any reimbursement agreement or underlying transaction.
d. Because a standby is documentary, an issuer's obligations depend on the presentation of documents and an examination of required documents on their face.
e. Because a standby or amendment is binding when issued, it is enforceable against an issuer whether or not the applicant authorised its issuance, the issuer received a fee, or the beneficiary received or relied on the standby or the amendment.
An issuer's obligations toward the beneficiary are not affected by the issuer's rights and obligations toward the applicant under any applicable agreement, practice, or law.
An issuer is not responsible for:
a. performance or breach of any underlying transaction;
b. accuracy, genuineness, or effect of any document presented under the standby;
c. action or omission of others even if the other person is chosen by the issuer or nominated person; or
d. observance of law or practice other than that chosen in the standby or applicable at the place of issuance.
In addition to the meanings given in standard banking practice and applicable law, the following terms have or include the meanings indicated below:
"Applicant" is a person who applies for issuance of a standby or for whose account it is issued, and includes (i) a person applying in its own name but for the account of another person or (ii) an issuer acting for its own account.
"Beneficiary" is a named person who is entitled to draw under a standby. See Rule 1.11(c)(ii).
"Business Day" means a day on which the place of business at which the relevant act is to be performed is regularly open; and "Banking Day" means a day on which the relevant bank is regularly open at the place at which the relevant act is to be performed.
"Confirmer" is a person who, upon an issuer's nomination to do so, adds to the issuer's undertaking its own undertaking to honour a standby. See Rule 1.11(c)(i).
"Demand" means, depending on the context, either a request to honour a standby or a document that makes such request.
"Document" means a draft, demand, document of title, investment security, invoice, certificate of default, or any other representation of fact, law, right, or opinion, that upon presentation (whether in a paper or electronic medium), is capable of being examined for compliance with the terms and conditions of a standby.
"Drawing" means, depending on the context, either a demand presented or a demand honoured.
"Expiration Date" means the latest day for a complying presentation provided in a standby.
"Person" includes a natural person, partnership, corporation, limited liability company, government agency, bank, trustee, and any other legal or commercial association or entity.
"Presentation" means, depending on the context, either the act of delivering documents for examination under a standby or the documents so delivered.
"Presenter" is a person who makes a presentation as or on behalf of a beneficiary or nominated person.
"Signature" includes any symbol executed or adopted by a person with a present intent to authenticate a document.
b. Cross References
"Amendment" - Rule 2.06
"Advice" - Rule 2.05
"Approximately" ("About" or "Circa")
"Assignment of Proceeds" - Rule 6.06
"Automatic Amendment" - Rule 2.06(a)
"Copy" - Rule 4.15(d)
"Cover Instructions" - Rule 5.08
"Honour" - Rule 2.01
"Issuer" - Rule 2.01
"Multiple Presentations" - Rule 3.08(b)
"Nominated Person" - Rule 2.04
"Non-documentary Conditions" - Rule 4.11
"Original" - Rule 4.15(b) & (c)
"Partial Drawing" - Rule 3.08(a)
"Standby" - Rule 1.01(d)
"Transfer" - Rule 6.01
"Transferee Beneficiary" - Rule 1.11(c)(ii)
"Transfer by Operation of Law" - Rule 6.11
c. Electronic Presentations
The following terms in a standby providing for or permitting electronic presentation shall have the following meanings unless the context otherwise requires:
"Electronic Record" means:
i. a record (information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or that is stored in an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form);
ii. communicated by electronic means to a system for receiving, storing, re-transmitting, or otherwise processing information (data, text, images, sounds, codes, computer programs, software, databases, and the like); and
iii. capable of being authenticated and then examined for compliance with the terms and conditions of the standby.
"Authenticate" means to verify an electronic record by generally accepted procedure or methodology in commercial practice:
i. the identity of a sender or source, and
ii. the integrity of or errors in the transmission of information content.
The criteria for assessing the integrity of information in an electronic record is whether the information has remained complete and un-altered, apart from the addition of any endorsement and any change which arises in the normal course of communication, storage, and display.
"Electronic signature" means letters, characters, numbers, or other symbols in electronic form, attached to or logically associated with an electronic record that are executed or adopted by a party with present intent to authenticate an electronic record.
"Receipt" occurs when:
i. an electronic record enters in a form capable of being processed by the information system designated in the standby, or
ii. an issuer retrieves an electronic record sent
a. A standby should not or need not state that it is:
i. unconditional or abstract (if it does, it signifies merely that payment under it is conditioned solely on presentation of specified documents);
ii. absolute (if it does, it signifies merely that it is irrevocable);
iii. primary (if it does, it signifies merely that it is the independent obligation of the issuer);
iv. payable from the issuer's own funds (if it does, it signifies merely that payment under it does not depend on the availability of applicant funds and is made to satisfy the issuer's own independent obligation);
v. clean or payable on demand (if it does, it signifies merely that it is payable upon presentation of a written demand or other documents specified in the standby).
b. A standby should not use the term "and/or" (if it does it means either or both).
c. The following terms have no single accepted meaning:
i. and shall be disregarded:"callable", "divisible", "fractionable", "indivisible", and "transmissible",
ii. and shall be disregarded unless their context gives them meaning: "assignable", "evergreen", "reinstate", and "revolving".
a. These Rules, are to be interpreted in the context of applicable standard practice.
b. In these Rules, "standby letter of credit" refers to the type of independent undertaking for which these Rules were intended, whereas "standby" refers to an undertaking subjected to these Rules.
c. Unless the context otherwise requires:
i. "Issuer" includes a "confirmer" as if the confirmer were a separate issuer and its confirmation were a separate standby issued for the account of the issuer;
ii. "Beneficiary" includes a person to whom the named beneficiary has effectively transferred drawing rights ("transferee beneficiary");
iii. "Including" means "including but not limited to";
iv. "A or B" means "A or B or both"; "either A or B" means "A or B, but not both"; and "A and B" means "both A and B";
v. Words in the singular number include the plural, and in the plural include the singular; and
vi. Words of the neuter gender include any gender.
d. i. Use of the phrase "unless a standby otherwise states" or the like in a rule emphasizes that the text of the standby controls over the rule;
ii. Absence of such a phrase in other rules does not imply that other rules have priority over the text of the standby;
iii. Addition of the term "expressly" or "clearly" to the phrase "unless a standby otherwise states" or the like emphasizes that the rule should be excluded or modified only by wording in the standby that is specific and unambiguous; and
iv. While the effect of all of these Rules may be varied by the text of the standby, variations of the effect of some of these Rules may disqualify the standby as an independent undertaking under applicable law.
e. The phrase "stated in the standby" or the like refers to the actual text of a standby (whether as issued or effectively amended) whereas the phrase "provided in the standby" or the like refers to both the text of the standby and these Rules as incorporated.
a. An issuer undertakes to the beneficiary to honour a presentation that appears on its face to comply with the terms and conditions of the standby in accordance with these Rules supplemented by standard standby practice.
b. An issuer honours a complying presentation made to it by paying the amount demanded of it at sight, unless the standby provides for honour:
i. by acceptance of a draft drawn by the beneficiary on the issuer, in which case the issuer honours by:
(a) timely accepting the draft; and
(b) thereafter paying the holder of the draft on presentation of the accepted draft on or after its maturity.
ii. by deferred payment of a demand made by the beneficiary on the issuer, in which case the issuer honours by:
(a) timely incurring a deferred payment obligation;
(b) thereafter paying at maturity.
iii. by negotiation, in which case the issuer honours by paying the amount demanded at sight without recourse.
c. An issuer acts in a timely manner if it pays at sight, accepts a draft, or undertakes a deferred payment obligation (or if it gives notice of dishonour) within the time permitted for examining the presentation and giving notice of dishonour.
d. i. A confirmer undertakes to honour a complying presentation made to it by paying the amount demanded of it at sight or, if the standby so states, by another method of honour consistent with the issuer's undertaking.
ii. If the confirmation permits presentation to the issuer, then the confirmer undertakes also to honour upon the issuer's wrongful dishonour by performing as if the presentation had been made to the confirmer.
iii. If the standby permits presentation to the confirmer, then the issuer undertakes also to honour upon the confirmer's wrongful dishonour by performing as if the presentation had been made to the issuer.
e. An issuer honours by paying in immediately available funds in the currency designated in the standby unless the standby states it is payable by:
i. payment of a monetary unit of account, in which case the undertaking is to pay in that unit of account;
ii. delivery of other items of value, in which case the undertaking is to deliver those items.
For the purposes of these Rules, an issuer's branch, agency, or other office acting or undertaking to act under a standby in a capacity other than as issuer is obligated in that capacity only and shall be treated as a different person.
A standby is issued when it leaves an issuer's control unless it clearly specifies that it is not then "issued" or "enforceable". Statements that a standby is not "available", "operative", "effective", or the like do not affect its irrevocable and binding nature at the time it leaves the issuer's control.
a. A standby may nominate a person to advise, receive a presentation, effect a transfer, confirm, pay, negotiate, incur a deferred payment obligation, or accept a draft.
b. Nomination does not obligate the nominated person to act except to the extent that the nominated person undertakes to act.
c. A nominated person is not authorised to bind the person making the nomination.
a. Unless an advice states otherwise, it signifies that:
i. the advisor has checked the apparent authenticity of the advised message in accordance with standard letter of credit practice;
ii. the advice accurately reflects what has been received.
b. A person who is requested to advise a standby and decides not to do so should notify the requesting party.
a. If a standby expressly states that it is subject to "automatic amendment" by an increase or decrease in the amount available, an extension of the expiration date; or the like, the amendment is effective automatically without any further notification or consent beyond that expressly provided for in the standby. (Such an amendment may also be referred to as becoming effective "without amendment".)
b. If there is no provision for automatic amendment, an amendment binds:
i. the issuer when it leaves the issuer's control; and
ii. the confirmer when it leaves the confirmer's control, unless the confirmer indicates that it does not confirm the amendment.
c. If there is no provision for automatic amendment:
i. the beneficiary must consent to the amendment for it to be binding;
ii. the beneficiary's consent must be made by an express communication to the person advising the amendment unless the beneficiary presents documents which comply with the standby as amended and which would not comply with the standby prior to such amendment; and
iii. an amendment does not require the applicant's consent to be binding on the issuer, the confirmer, or the beneficiary.
d. Consent to only part of an amendment is a rejection of the entire amendment.
a. An issuer using another person to advise a standby must advise all amendments to that person.
b. An amendment or cancellation of a standby does not affect the issuer's obligation to a nominated person that has acted within the scope of its nomination before receipt of notice of the amendment or cancellation.
c. Non-extension of an automatically extendable (renewable) standby does not affect an issuer's obligation to a nominated person who has acted within the scope of its nomination before receipt of a notice of non-extension.
A standby should indicate the time, place and location within that place, person to whom, and medium in which presentation should be made. If so, presentation must be so made in order to comply. To the extent that a standby does not so indicate, presentation must be made in accord-ance with these Rules in order to be complying.
The receipt of a document required by and presented under a standby constitutes a presentation requiring examination for compliance with the terms and conditions of the standby even if not all of the required documents have been presented.
a. A presentation must identify the standby under which the presentation is made.
b. A presentation may identify the standby by stating the complete reference number of the standby and the name and location of the issuer or by attaching the original or a copy of the standby.
c. If the issuer cannot determine from the face of a document received that it should be processed under a standby or cannot identify the standby to which it relates, presentation is deemed to have been made on the date of identification.
a. To comply, a presentation must be made at the place and any location at that place indicated in the standby or provided in these Rules.
b. If no place of presentation to the issuer is indicated in the standby, presentation to the issuer must be made at the place of business from which the standby was issued.
c. If a standby is confirmed, but no place for presentation is indicated in the confirmation, presentation for the purpose of obligating the confirmer (and the issuer) must be made at the place of business of the confirmer from which the confirmation was issued or to the issuer.
d. If no location at a place of presentation is indicated (such as department, floor, room, station, mail stop, post office box, or other location), presentation may be made to:
i. the general postal address indicated in the standby;
ii. any location at the place designated to receive deliveries of mail or documents;
iii. any person at the place of presentation actually or apparently authorised to receive it.
a. A presentation is timely if made at any time after issuance and before expiry on the expiration date.
b. A presentation made after the close of business at the place of presentation is deemed to have been made on the next business day.
a. To comply, a document must be presented in the medium indicated in the standby.
b. Where no medium is indicated, to comply a document must be presented as a paper document, unless only a demand is required, in which case:
i. a demand that is presented via S.W.I.F.T., tested telex, or other similar authenticated means by a beneficiary that is a S.W.I.F.T. participant or a bank complies;
ii. a demand that is not presented as a paper document does not comply unless the issuer permits, in its sole discretion, the use of that medium.
c. A document is not presented as a paper document if it is communicated by electronic means even if the issuer or nominated person receiving it generates a paper document from it.
d. Where presentation in an electronic medium is indicated, to comply a document must be presented as an electronic record capable of being authenticated by the issuer or nominated person to whom it is presented.
a. Making a non-complying presentation, with-drawing a presentation, or failing to make any one of a number of scheduled or permitted presentations does not waive or otherwise prejudice the right to make another timely presentation or a timely re-presentation whether or not the standby prohibits partial or multiple drawings or presentations.
b. Wrongful dishonour of a complying presentation does not constitute dishonour of any other presentation under a standby or repudiation of the standby.
c. Honour of a non-complying presentation, with or without notice of its non-compliance, does not waive requirements of a standby for other presentations.
a. A presentation may be made for less than the full amount available ("partial drawing").
b. More than one presentation ("multiple presentations") may be made.
c. The statement "partial drawings prohibited" or a similar expression means that a presentation must be for the full amount available.
d. The statement "multiple drawings prohibited" or a similar expression means that only one presentation may be made and honoured but that it may be for less than the full amount available.
e. If a demand exceeds the amount available under the standby, the drawing is discrepant. Any document other than the demand stating an amount in excess of the amount demanded is not discrepant for that reason.
f. Use of "approximately", "about", "circa", or a similar word permits a tolerance not to exceed 10% more or 10% less of the amount to which such word refers.
A beneficiary's request to extend the expiration date of the standby or, alternatively, to pay the amount available under it:
a. is a presentation demanding payment under the standby, to be examined as such in accordance with these Rules; and
b. implies that the beneficiary:
i. consents to the amendment to extend the expiry date to the date requested;
ii. requests the issuer to exercise its discretion to seek the approval of the applicant and to issue that amendment;
iii. upon issuance of that amendment, retracts its demand for payment;
iv. consents to the maximum time available under these Rules for examination and notice of dishonour.
An issuer is not required to notify the applicant of receipt of a presentation under the standby.
In addition to other discretionary provisions in a standby or these Rules, an issuer may, in its sole discretion, without notice to or consent of the applicant and without effect on the applicant's obligations to the issuer, waive
a. the following Rules and any similar terms stated in the standby which are primarily for the issuer's benefit or operational convenience:
i. treatment of documents received, at the request of the presenter, as having been presented at a later date (Rule 3.02);
ii. identification of a presentation to the standby under which it is presented (Rule 3.03(a));
iii. where and to whom presentation is made (Rule 3.04(b), (c), and (d)), except the country of presentation stated in the standby;
iv. treatment of a presentation made after the close of business as if it were made on the next business day (Rule 3.05(b)).
b. the following Rule but not similar terms stated in the standby:
i. a required document dated after the date of its stated presentation (Rule 4.06);
ii. the requirement that a document issued by the beneficiary be in the language of the standby (Rule 4.04).
c. the following Rule relating to the operational integrity of the standby only in so far as the bank is in fact dealing with the true beneficiary:
acceptance of a demand in an electronic medium (Rule 3.06(b)).
Waiver by the confirmer requires the consent of the issuer with respect to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this Rule.
a. If an original standby is lost, stolen, mutilated, or destroyed, the issuer need not replace it or waive any requirement that the original be presented under the standby.
b. If the issuer agrees to replace an original standby or to waive a requirement for its presentation, it may provide a replacement or copy to the beneficiary without affecting the applicant's obligations to the issuer to reimburse, but, if it does so, the issuer must mark the replacement or copy as such. The issuer may, in its sole discretion, require indemnities satisfactory to it from the beneficiary and assurances from nominated persons that no payment has been made.
a. If the last day for presentation stated in a standby (whether stated to be the expiration date or the date by which documents must be received) is not a business day of the issuer or nominated person where presentation is to be made, then presentation made there on the first following business day shall be deemed timely.
b. A nominated person to whom such a presentation is made must so notify the issuer.
a. If on the last business day for presentation the place for presentation stated in a standby is for any reason closed and presentation is not timely made because of the closure, then the last day for presentation is automatically extended to the day occurring thirty calendar days after the place for presentation re-opens for business, unless the standby otherwise provides.
b. Upon or in anticipation of closure of the place of presentation, an issuer may authorise another reasonable place for presentation in the standby or in a communication received by the beneficiary. If it does so, then
i. presentation must be made at that reasonable place;
ii. if the communication is received fewer than thirty calendar days before the last day for presentation and for that reason presentation is not timely made, the last day for presentation is automatically extended to the day occurring thirty calendar days after the last day for presentation.
a. Demands for honour of a standby must comply with the terms and conditions of the standby.
b. Whether a presentation appears to comply is determined by examining the presentation on its face against the terms and conditions stated in the standby as interpreted and supplemented by these Rules which are to be read in the context of standard standby practice.
Documents presented which are not required by the standby need not be examined and, in any event, shall be disregarded for purposes of determining compliance of the presentation. They may without responsibility be returned to the presenter or passed on with the other documents presented.
An issuer or nominated person is required to examine documents for inconsistency with each other only to the extent provided in the standby.
The language of all documents issued by the beneficiary is to be that of the standby.
Any required document must be issued by the beneficiary unless the standby indicates that the document is to be issued by a third person or the document is of a type that standard standby practice requires to be issued by a third person.
The issuance date of a required document may be earlier but not later than the date of its presentation.
a. A required document need not be signed unless the standby indicates that the document must be signed or the document is of a type that standard standby practice requires be signed.
b. A required signature may be made in any manner that corresponds to the medium in which the signed document is presented.
c. Unless a standby specifies:
i. the name of a person who must sign a document, any signature or authentication will be regarded as a complying signature.
ii. the status of a person who must sign, no indication of status is necessary.
d. If a standby specifies that a signature must be made by:
i. a named natural person without requiring that the signer's status be identified, a signature complies that appears to be that of the named person;
ii. a named legal person or government agency without identifying who is to sign on its behalf or its status, any signature complies that appears to have been made on behalf of the named legal person or government agency;
iii. a named natural person, legal person, or government agency requiring the status of the signer be indicated, a signature complies which appears to be that of the named natural person, legal person, or government agency and indicates its status.
If a standby does not specify any required document, it will still be deemed to require a documentary demand for payment.
If a standby requires:
a. a statement without specifying precise wording, then the wording in the document presented must appear to convey the same meaning as that required by the standby;
b. specified wording by the use of quotation marks, blocked wording, or an attached exhibit or form, then typographical errors in spelling, punctuation, spacing, or the like that are apparent when read in context are not required to be duplicated and blank lines or spaces for data may be completed in any manner not inconsistent with the standby;
c. specified wording by the use of quotation marks, blocked wording, or an attached exhibit or form, and also provides that the specified wording be "exact" or "identical", then the wording in the documents presented, including typographical errors in spelling, punctuation, spacing and the like, as well as blank lines and spaces for data, must be exactly reproduced.
A standby should not specify that a required document be issued, signed, or counter-signed by the applicant. However, if the standby includes such a requirement, the issuer may not waive the requirement and is not responsible for the applicant's withholding of the document or signature.
a. A standby term or condition which is non-documentary must be disregarded whether or not it affects the issuer's obligation to treat a presentation as complying or to treat the standby as issued, amended, or terminated.
b. Terms or conditions are non-documentary if the standby does not require presentation of a document in which they are to be evidenced and if their fulfillment cannot be determined by the issuer from the issuer's own records or within the issuer's normal operations.
c. Determinations from the issuer's own records or within the issuer's normal operations include determinations of:
i. when, where, and how documents are presented or otherwise delivered to the issuer;
ii. when, where, and how communications affecting the standby are sent or received by the issuer, beneficiary, or any nominated person;
iii. amounts transferred into or out of accounts with the issuer;
iv. amounts determinable from a published index (e.g., if a standby provides for determining amounts of interest accruing according to published interest rates).
d. An issuer need not re-compute a beneficiary's computations under a formula stated or referenced in a standby except to the extent that the standby so provides.
a. A required statement need not be accompanied by a solemnity, officialization, or any other formality.
b. If a standby provides for the addition of a formality to a required statement by the person making it without specifying form or content, the statement complies if it indicates that it was declared, averred, warranted, attested, sworn under oath, affirmed, certified, or the like.
c. If a standby provides for a statement to be witnessed by another person without specifying form or content, the witnessed statement complies if it appears to contain a signature of a person other than the beneficiary with an indication that the person is acting as a witness.
d. If a standby provides for a statement to be counter-signed, legalized, visaed, or the like by a person other than the beneficiary acting in a governmental, judicial, corporate, or other representative capacity without specifying form or content, the statement complies if it contains the signature of a person other than the beneficiary and includes an indication of that person's representative capacity and the organization on whose behalf the person has acted.
Except to the extent that a standby requires presentation of an electronic record:
a. a person honouring a presentation has no obligation to the applicant to ascertain the identity of any person making a presentation or any assignee of proceeds;
b. payment to a named beneficiary, transferee, an acknowledged assignee, successor by operation of law, to an account or account number stated in the standby or in a cover instruction from the beneficiary or nominated person fulfills the obligation under the standby to effect payment.
If the issuer or confirmer is reorganized, merged, or changes its name, any required reference by name to the issuer or confirmer in the documents presented may be to it or its successor.
a. A presented document must be an original.
b. Presentation of an electronic record, where an electronic presentation is permitted or required is deemed to be an "original".
c. i. A presented document is deemed to be an "original" unless it appears on its face to have been reproduced from an original.
ii. A document which appears to have been reproduced from an original is deemed to be an original if the signature or authentication appears to be original.
d. A standby that requires presentation of a "copy" permits presentation of either an original or copy unless the standby states that only a copy be presented or otherwise addresses the disposition of all originals.
e. If multiples of the same document are requested, only one must be an original unless:
i. "duplicate originals" or "multiple originals" are requested in which case all must be originals;
ii. "two copies", "two-fold", or the like are requested in which case either originals or copies may be presented.
a. A demand for payment need not be separate from the beneficiary's statement or other required document.
b. If a separate demand is required, it must contain:
i. a demand for payment from the beneficiary directed to the issuer or nominated person;
ii. a date indicating when the demand was issued;
iii. the amount demanded;
iv. the beneficiary's signature.
c. A demand may be in the form of a draft or other instruction, order, or request to pay. If a standby requires presentation of a "draft" or "bill of exchange", that draft or bill of exchange need not be in negotiable form unless the standby so states.
If a standby requires a statement, certificate, or other recital of a default or other drawing event and does not specify content, the document complies if it contains:
a. a representation to the effect that payment is due because a drawing event described in the standby has occurred;
b. a date indicating when it was issued; and
c. the beneficiary's signature.
If a standby requires presentation of a document that is transferable by endorsement and delivery without stating whether, how, or to whom endorsement must be made, then the document may be presented without endorsement, or, if endorsed, the endorsement may be in blank and, in any event, the document may be issued or negotiated with or without recourse.
If a standby requires presentation of a government-issued document, a court order, an arbitration award, or the like, a document or a copy is deemed to comply if it appears to be:
i. issued by a government agency, court, tribunal, or the like;
ii. suitably titled or named;
v. originally certified or authenticated by an official of a government agency, court, tribunal, or the like.
a. If a standby requires a document other than one whose content is specified in these Rules without specifying the issuer, data content, or wording, a document complies if it appears to be appropriately titled or to serve the function of that type of document under standard standby practice.
b. A document presented under a standby is to be examined in the context of standby practice under these Rules even if the document is of a type (such as a commercial invoice, transport documents, insurance documents or the like) for which the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits contains detailed rules.
If a standby requests that the beneficiary of the standby issue its own separate undertaking to another (whether or not the standby recites the text of that undertaking):
a. the beneficiary receives no rights other than its rights to draw under the standby even if the issuer pays a fee to the beneficiary for issuing the separate undertaking;
b. neither the separate undertaking nor any documents presented under it need be presented to the issuer;
c. if originals or copies of the separate undertaking or documents presented under it are received by the issuer although not required to be presented as a condition to honour of the standby:
i. the issuer need not examine, and, in any event, shall disregard their compliance or consistency with the standby, with the beneficiary's demand under the standby, or with the beneficiary's separate undertaking;
ii. the issuer may without responsibility return them to the presenter or forward them to the applicant with the presentation.
a. Notice of dishonour must be given within a time after presentation of documents which is not unreasonable.
i. Notice given within three business days is deemed to be not unreasonable and beyond seven business days is deemed to be unreasonable.
ii. Whether the time within which notice is given is unreasonable does not depend upon an imminent deadline for presentation.
iii. The time for calculating when notice of dishonour must be given begins on the business day following the business day of presentation.
iv. Unless a standby otherwise expressly states a shortened time within which notice of dishonour must be given, the issuer has no obligation to accelerate its examination of a presentation.
b. i. The means by which a notice of dishonour is to be given is by telecommunication, if available, and, if not, by another available means which allows for prompt notice.
ii. If notice of dishonour is received within the time permitted for giving the notice, then it is deemed to have been given by prompt means.
c. Notice of dishonour must be given to the person from whom the documents were received (whether the beneficiary, nominated person, or person other than a delivery person) except as otherwise requested by the presenter.
A notice of dishonour shall state all discrepancies upon which dishonour is based.
a. Failure to give notice of a discrepancy in a notice of dishonour within the time and by the means specified in the standby or these rules precludes assertion of that discrepancy in any document containing the discrepancy that is retained or re-presented, but does not preclude assertion of that discrepancy in any different presentation under the same or a separate standby.
b. Failure to give notice of dishonour or acceptance or acknowledgment that a deferred payment undertaking has been incurred obligates the issuer to pay at maturity.
Failure to give notice that a presentation was made after the expiration date does not preclude dishonour for that reason.
If the issuer decides that a presentation does not comply and if the presenter does not otherwise instruct, the issuer may, in its sole discretion, request the applicant to waive non-compliance or otherwise to authorize honour within the time available for giving notice of dishonour but without extending it. Obtaining the applicant's waiver does not obligate the issuer to waive non-compliance.
If, after receipt of notice of dishonour, a presenter requests that the presented documents be forwarded to the issuer or that the issuer seek the applicant's waiver:
a. no person is obligated to forward the discrepant documents or seek the applicant's waiver;
b. the presentation to the issuer remains subject to these Rules unless departure from them is expressly consented to by the presenter;
c. if the documents are forwarded or if a waiver is sought:
i. the presenter is precluded from objecting to the discrepancies notified to it by the issuer;
ii. the issuer is not relieved from examining the presentation under these Rules;
iii. the issuer is not obligated to waive the discrepancy even if the applicant waives it; and
iv. the issuer must hold the documents until it receives a response from the applicant or is requested by the presenter to return the documents, and if the issuer receives no such response or request within ten business days of its notice of dishonour, it may return the documents to the presenter.
Dishonoured documents must be returned, held, or disposed of as reasonably instructed by the presenter. Failure to give notice of the disposition of documents in the notice of dishonour does not preclude the issuer from asserting any defense otherwise available to it against honour.
a. Instructions accompanying a presentation made under a standby may be relied on to the extent that they are not contrary to the terms or conditions of the standby, the demand, or these Rules.
b. Representations made by a nominated person accompanying a presentation may be relied upon to the extent that they are not contrary to the terms or conditions of a standby or these Rules.
c. Notwithstanding receipt of instructions, an issuer or nominated person may pay, give notice, return the documents, or otherwise deal directly with the presenter.
d. A statement in the cover letter that the documents are discrepant does not relieve the issuer from examining the presentation for compliance.
a. An applicant must timely object to an issuer's honour of a noncomplying presentation by giving timely notice by prompt means.
b. An applicant acts timely if it objects to discrepancies by sending a notice to the issuer stating the discrepancies on which the objection is based within a time after the applicant's receipt of the documents which is not unreasonable.
c. Failure to give a timely notice of objection by prompt means precludes assertion by the applicant against the issuer of any discrepancy or other matter apparent on the face of the documents received by the applicant, but does not preclude assertion of that objection to any different presentation under the same or a different standby.
Where a beneficiary requests that an issuer or nominated person honour a drawing from another person as if that person were the beneficiary, these Rules on transfer of drawing rights ("transfer") apply.
a. A standby is not transferable unless it so states.
b. A standby that states that it is transferable without further provision means that drawing rights:
i. may be transferred in their entirety more than once;
ii. may not be partially transferred;
iii. may not be transferred unless the issuer (including the confirmer) or another person specifically nominated in the standby agrees to and effects the transfer requested by the beneficiary.
An issuer of a transferable standby or a nominated person need not effect a transfer unless:
a. it is satisfied as to the existence and authenticity of the original standby; and
b. the beneficiary submits or fulfills:
i. a request in a form acceptable to the issuer or nominated person including the effective date of the transfer and the name and address of the transferee;
ii. the original standby;
iii. verification of the signature of the person signing for the beneficiary;
iv. verification of the authority of the person signing for the beneficiary;
v. payment of the transfer fee;
vi. any other reasonable requirements.
Where there has been a transfer of drawing rights in their entirety:
a. a draft or demand must be signed by the transferee beneficiary;
b. the name of the transferee beneficiary may be used in place of the name of the transferor beneficiary in any other required document.
An issuer or nominated person paying under a transfer pursuant to Rule 6.03(a), (b)(i), and (b)(ii) is entitled to reimbursement as if it had made payment to the beneficiary.
Where an issuer or nominated person is asked to acknowledge a beneficiary's request to pay an assignee all or part of any proceeds of the beneficiary's drawing under the standby, these Rules on acknowledgment of an assignment of proceeds apply except where applicable law otherwise requires.
a. Unless applicable law otherwise requires, an issuer or nominated person
i. is not obligated to give effect to an assignment of proceeds which it has not acknowledged;
ii. is not obligated to acknowledge the assignment.
b. If an assignment is acknowledged:
i. the acknowledgment confers no rights with respect to the standby to the assignee who is only entitled to the proceeds assigned, if any, and whose rights may be affected by amendment or cancellation;
ii. the rights of the assignee are subject to:
(a) the existence of any net proceeds payable to the beneficiary by the person making the acknowledgment;
(b) rights of nominated persons and transferee beneficiaries;
(c) rights of other acknowledged assignees; and
(d) any other rights or interests that may have priority under applicable law.
An issuer or nominated person may condition its acknowledgment on receipt of:
a. the original standby for examination or notation;
b. verification of the signature of the person signing for the beneficiary;
c. verification of the authority of the person signing for the beneficiary;
d. an irrevocable request signed by the beneficiary for acknowledgment of the assignment that includes statements, covenants, indemnities, and other provisions which may be contained in the issuer's or nominated person's required form requesting acknowledgment of assignment, such as:
i. the identity of the affected drawings if the standby permits multiple drawings;
ii. the full name, legal form, location, and mailing address of the beneficiary and the assignee;
iii. details of any request affecting the method of payment or delivery of the standby proceeds;
iv. limitation on partial assignments and prohibition of successive assignments;
v. statements regarding the legality and relative priority of the assignment; or
vi. right of recovery by the issuer or nominated person of any proceeds received by the assignee that are recoverable from the beneficiary;
e. payment of a fee for the acknowledgment; and
f. fulfillment of other reasonable requirements.
If there are conflicting claims to proceeds, then payment to an acknowledged assignee may be suspended pending resolution of the conflict.
An issuer or nominated person paying under an acknowledged assignment pursuant to Rule 6.08(a) and (b) is entitled to reimbursement as if it had made payment to the beneficiary. If the beneficiary is a bank, the acknowledgment may be based solely upon an authenticated communication.
Where an heir, personal representative, liquidator, trustee, receiver, successor corporation, or similar person who claims to be designated by law to succeed to the interests of a beneficiary presents documents in its own name as if it were the authorized transferee of the beneficiary, these Rules on transfer by operation of law apply.
A claimed successor may be treated as if it were an authorized transferee of a beneficiary's drawing rights in their entirety if it presents an additional document or documents which appear to be issued by a public official or representative (including a judicial officer) and indicate:
a. that the claimed successor is the survivor of a merger, consolidation, or similar action of a corporation, limited liability company, or other similar organization;
b. that the claimed successor is authorized or appointed to act on behalf of the named beneficiary or its estate because of an insolvency proceeding;
c. that the claimed successor is authorized or appointed to act on behalf of the named beneficiary because of death or incapacity;
d. that the name of the named beneficiary has been changed to that of the claimed successor.
An issuer or nominated person which receives a presentation from a claimed successor which complies in all respects except for the name of the beneficiary:
a. may request in a manner satisfactory as to form and substance:
i. a legal opinion;
ii. an additional document referred to in Rule 6.12 (Additional Document in Event of Drawing in Successor's Name) from a public official;
iii. statements, covenants, and indemnities regarding the status of the claimed successor as successor by operation of law;
iv. payment of fees reasonably related to these determinations; and
v. anything which may be required for a transfer under Rule 6.03 (Conditions to Transfer) or an acknowledgment of assignment of proceeds under Rule 6.08 (Conditions to Acknowledgment of Assignment of Proceeds);
but such documentation shall not constitute a required document for purposes of expiry of the standby.
b. Until the issuer or nominated person receives the requested documentation, its obligation to honour or give notice of dishonour is suspended, but any deadline for presentation of required documents is not thereby extended.
An issuer or nominated person paying under a transfer by operation of law pursuant to Rule 6.12 (Additional Document in Event of Drawing in Successor's Name) is entitled to reimbursement as if it had made payment to the beneficiary.
A beneficiary's rights under a standby may not be cancelled without its consent. Consent may be evidenced in writing or by an action such as return of the original standby in a manner which implies that the beneficiary consents to cancellation. A beneficiary's consent to cancellation is irrevocable when communicated to the issuer.
Before acceding to a beneficiary's authorization to cancel and treating the standby as cancelled for all purposes, an issuer may require in a manner satisfactory as to form and substance:
a. the original standby;
c. verification of the authorization of the person signing for the beneficiary;
d. a legal opinion;
e. an irrevocable authority signed by the beneficiary for cancellation that includes statements, covenants, indemnities, and similar provisions contained in a required form;
f. satisfaction that the obligation of any confirmer has been cancelled;
h. any other reasonable measure.
g. satisfaction that there has not been a transfer or payment by any nominated person;
a. Where payment is made against a complying presentation in accordance with these Rules, reimbursement must be made by:
i. an applicant to an issuer requested to issue a standby;
ii. an issuer to a person nominated to honour or otherwise give value.
b. An applicant must indemnify the issuer against all claims, obligations, and responsibilities (including attorney's fees) arising out of:
i. the imposition of law or practice other than that chosen in the standby or applicable at the place of issuance;
ii. the fraud, forgery, or illegal action of others;
iii. the issuer's performance of the obligations of a confirmer that wrongfully dishonours a confirmation.
c. This Rule supplements any applicable agreement, course of dealing, practice, custom or usage providing for reimbursement or indemnification on lesser or other grounds.
a. An applicant must pay the issuer's charges and reimburse the issuer for any charges that the issuer is obligated to pay to persons nominated with the applicant's consent to advise, confirm, honour, negotiate, transfer, or to issue a separate undertaking.
b. An issuer is obligated to pay the charges of other persons:
i. if they are payable in accordance with the terms of the standby;
ii. if they are the reasonable and customary fees and expenses of a person requested by the issuer to advise, honour, negotiate, transfer, or to issue a separate undertaking, and they are unrecovered and unrecoverable from the beneficiary or other presenter because no demand is made under the standby.
A nominated person that obtains reimbursement before the issuer timely dishonours the presentation must refund the reimbursement with interest if the issuer dishonours. The refund does not preclude the nominated person's wrongful dishonour claims.
Any instruction or authorization to obtain reimbursement from another bank is subject to the International Chamber of Commerce standard rules for bank-to-bank reimbursements.
A standby must:
a. contain an expiry date;
b. permit the issuer to terminate the standby upon reasonable prior notice or payment.
The rights of a nominated person that acts within the scope of its nomination are not affected by the subsequent expiry of the standby.
a. A period of time within which an action must be taken under these Rules begins to run on the first business day following the business day when the action could have been undertaken at the place where the action should have been undertaken.
b. An extension period starts on the calendar day following the stated expiry date even if either day falls on a day when the issuer is closed.
If no time of day is stated for expiration, it occurs at the close of business at the place of presentation.
Retention of the original standby does not preserve any rights under the standby after the right to demand payment ceases.
If a standby with more than one issuer does not state to whom presentation may be made, presentation may be made to any issuer with binding effect on all issuers.
a. Unless otherwise agreed between an applicant and an issuer, the issuer may sell participations in the issuer's rights against the applicant and any presenter and may disclose relevant applicant information in confidence to potential participants.
b. An issuer's sale of participations does not affect the obligations of the issuer under the standby or create any rights or obligations between the beneficiary and any participant.